By A. G. Fishburn
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Extra info for An Introduction to Pharmaceutical Formulation
Dilute solutions are liable to mould growth and require a preservative. The high viscosity grades of methylcellulose are used as bulk laxatives. F. ; they have not yet been used extensively in pharmacy in this country. C. C0 2 H instead of—CH 3 . It is made by treating cellulose with monochloracetic acid in presence of alkali and is available in several grades distinguished by the viscosity of a 1 per cent solution (6-4000 cP). The main differences from methylcellulose are that it does not separate from hot water and that it is anionic in nature and therefore liable to incompatibility with large cations.
Its bland and inert nature makes it particularly suitable for eyeointments and its water-repellent effect is useful for drugs such as penicillin which are unstable in aqueous solution. P. P. White Petrolatum. P. This is a mixture of solid hydrocarbons prepared from natural petroleum in a manner similar to that used for soft paraffin. It is chemically extremely inert and therefore stable and not liable to incompatibility. P. It is not normally included in the emulsified paraffin bases and is rarely used at concentrations higher than 5 per cent.
Those which are slow to swell or dissolve are commonly kept as ready-made mucilages (acacia, tragacanth, methylcellulose). P. C. P. "Jelly Strength" test for gelatin. Some thickeners, such as agar, methylcellulose and psyIlium, are used as "bulk" laxatives, either for treatment of constipation or following colostomy. Others, such as acacia and gelatin, have been administered intravenously to increase blood volume in treatment of shock but the use of acacia in this way has been abandoned due to risk of liver damage, and even gelatin can only be injected if of a high degree of purity and pyrogen-free.
An Introduction to Pharmaceutical Formulation by A. G. Fishburn