By James F. Blanchard, Han Kang, Faran Emmanuel, Sushena Reza Paul,
South Asia's HIV epidemic is very heterogeneous. accordingly, expert, prioritized, and potent responses necessitate an figuring out of the epidemic range among and inside of nations. extra unfold of HIV in South Asia is preventable. the longer term dimension of South Asia's epidemic is dependent upon an efficient two-pronged strategy: to start with, at the scope and effectiveness of HIV prevention courses for intercourse employees and their consumers, injecting drug clients and their sexual companions, and males having intercourse with males and their different sexual companions; and secondly, at the effectiveness of efforts to deal with the underlying socio-economic determinants of the epidemic, and to minimize stigma and discrimination in the direction of humans accomplishing excessive possibility behaviors, frequently marginalized in society, in addition to humans dwelling with HIV and AIDS. This overview was once undertaken to supply a foundation for rigorous, evidence-informed HIV coverage and programming in South Asia.
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Additional info for AIDS in South Asia: Understanding And Responding to a Heterogenous Epidemic (Health, Nutrition and Population Series)
The biological basis for this relationship is plausible (Patterson and others 2002; Szabo and Short 2000), and a meta-analysis of 38 studies from Africa has concluded that uncircumcised men were more than twice as likely to have HIV as circumcised men (Weiss, Quigley, and Hayes 2000). In mid2005, a randomized trial comparing circumcised and uncircumcised men in Orange Farm, South Africa, demonstrated a protective effect of about 60 percent (Auvert and others 2005). As a summary of the implications for South Asia, male circumcision is widespread in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, and Pakistan.
Solely on the basis of HIV prevalence, an early-phase generalizing epidemic will not appear to be much different from a later-phase concentrated epidemic. An assessment of the epidemic phase serves as a diagnostic tool, but the challenge lies not only in measuring HIV prevalence in different subpopulations and in understanding when HIV was introduced into the populations, but also in understanding the HIV-associated risk in subpopulations (especially to SWs and clients) and the factors related to sexual and needle-sharing networks.
Tamil Nadu, where a recent survey found a decline in the reported number of nonregular sex partners (from 48 percent in 1996 to 34 percent in 2004). That survey also found that 90 percent of truckers’ contacts with commercial sex partners were associated with condom use (APAC 2004). 8 percent among MSM, as noted previously. 6 percent (NASP 2005). General Population Most estimates of HIV prevalence in the general population derive from sentinel surveillance among women attending prenatal clinics, a source that can bias estimates in both directions.
AIDS in South Asia: Understanding And Responding to a Heterogenous Epidemic (Health, Nutrition and Population Series) by James F. Blanchard, Han Kang, Faran Emmanuel, Sushena Reza Paul,