By Vittorio Santaniello, Robert E Evenson, David Zilberman, Gerald A Carlson
This booklet has arisen from the convention entitled 'The form of the arriving agricultural biotechnology transformation: strategic funding and coverage techniques from an financial viewpoint' convened via the foreign Consortium on Agricultural Biotechnology examine (ICABR), held in Rome, June 17-19, 1999. Papers are divided among 4 sections overlaying: criminal platforms (5 papers); fiscal concerns (5 papers); biotechnology innovations (2 papers); and case experiences (2 papers)- North the US and Canada. on hand In Print
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Additional info for Agriculture and intellectual property rights: economic, institutional and implementation issues in biotechnology
Recent technological developments are contributing to making this event closer. As we have seen, the patenting of a partial or complete gene sequence is possible only when the biological function of this DNA fragment is known. Up to now, the determination of the biological role of even a single gene has been a rather complex and time-consuming exercise. Recent development, however, through the use of DNA array and massive plant observation technologies, are making all this more speedy and efficient.
Available partial evidence tends to show the existence of main differences. In the UK, for instance, the attempt to create new biotechnology start-up companies has led to failure (Thackray, 1998). Biotechnology developed, instead, in pre-existing pharmaceutical companies while only more recently are there signs of a reversal of this trend. Notes 1. 2. 3. 4. During the preparatory phase of the working groups, the same principle was extended to animal races on the analogy of what had been proposed for plants.
The argument needs to be traced separately for PBR and patents, as follows. Use of PBR UPOV-style PBR, which dominate in terms of systems currently in place, are intended for commercialized plants only. This is most evident from the Preamble of the 1961 Act, which justifies the Convention as ‘the protection of new varieties of plants … for the development of agriculture’. Thus uncultivated materials, as well as other forms of living materials would seem not to be applicable. Even under the most recent Act of 1991 which does not contain the Preamble, rights are granted to a breeder as the person who bred, or discovered and developed, a variety (Article 1(iv)).
Agriculture and intellectual property rights: economic, institutional and implementation issues in biotechnology by Vittorio Santaniello, Robert E Evenson, David Zilberman, Gerald A Carlson