By Robin Holliday
For hundreds of years humans were wondered by means of the inevitability of human getting older. for many of the second one half the 20th century getting older remained a secret, or an unsolved organic challenge. on the finish of the twentieth century a notable medical discovery emerged. It was once now not a unmarried discovery within the ordinary experience, since it was once in line with a chain of vital interconnected insights over rather a protracted time period. those insights made it attainable for the first actual time to appreciate the organic purposes for getting older in animals and guy. it could possibly already be acknowledged, even if, that the numerous observations and insights that designate getting older usually are not accredited as verified wisdom for a very long time. the sphere continues to be packed with scientists, and non-scientists, who're simply satisfied to head on speculating concerning the 'mystery' of getting older. the purpose of this e-book is to dispel lack of awareness through explaining in non-technical language what are the explanations for getting older and the parable of over the top prolongation of existence.
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There are genes called tumour suppressors which are part of the defences against cancer. There is also quite a new area of study known as epigenetics. All cells (with some specialised exceptions) have the very same set of genes in their DNA, but the way genes are expressed in different cell types is not well understood. Obviously haemoglobin is made in red blood cells and not in brain cells. What are the globin genes doing in the brain? They are there, but not expressed, whereas specialised brain cell proteins are expressed, but not in blood cells.
They are potentially immortal, like germ cells. These cells have single nuclei containing the genetic material DNA. Nature explores all avenues, and one was the evolution of organisms consisting of groups of cells. Another was 38 Chapter 5 the evolution of elongated cells containing many nuclei, like many fungi and algae which exist today. A further evolutionary step was the appearance of cells with specialised functions, such as spores which can resist dessication, UV light or heat, or combinations of motile and non-motile cells.
There is now plenty of evidence that so-called spontaneous damage in DNA is not completely repaired. It is known that gene mutations slowly accumulate in white blood cells with age, and also chromosome breaks, or changes in chromosome number. Such changes can occur both in cells that divide, or those that never do so. Since our genes control so many body functions, it is not surprising that DNA damage can ultimately have a multitude of different effects. Each defect or mutation may not be too serious, but as they accumulate their combined effects become greater.
Ageing : the paradox of life by Robin Holliday