By Luc Thévenaz
This e-book presents a complete therapy of the sector of recent fiber optics, starting with the fundamentals of the sector summarized in an introductory bankruptcy. professional individuals then issues akin to polarization results in optical fibers photonic crystal fibers highly-doped optical fibers non-linear results amplification and lasing in optical fibers supercontinuum iteration, Rayleigh and inelastic scattering with functions to sensing optical fiber aspect sensors, and polymer optical-fiber-based sensors.
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If the light source emits a monochromatic wave (a single frequency), the light is fully polarized. However, in many cases it is not possible to clearly define a polarization state for an optical wave: the electric field vector can randomly vary in the transverse plane and the tip does not describe a well defined pattern. In these cases, the light is said to be unpolarized. This is typically the case of a broadband light such as sunlight: the polarization behavior of each frequency is different and it is therefore not possible to deduce a well defined polarization state.
In practice, perfect circular symmetry cannot be realized, the two modes are no longer degenerate and are characterized by different propagation constants, which leads to the phenomenon of birefringence. The random nature of the asymmetry distribution along the fiber leads to another important polarization feature: polarization mode coupling, which is related to the variation of the birefringence properties along the fiber length. After explaining the notions of birefringence and polarization mode coupling, a model of the polarization properties of an optical fiber is presented.
20 Some specialty fibers: (a) a high birefringence fiber; (b) erbium-doped fiber amplifier; and (c) a microstructured/photonic bandgap fiber (also known as a holey fiber). The black in the drawing represents solid glass, while the holes are filled with air (or other gas or liquid materials for sensing purposes). l Holey fibers (also called microstructured and photonic crystal fibers) – Numerous degrees of freedom have become available to fiber designers with the introduction of microstructured fibers  (Fig.
Advanced Fiber Optics by Luc Thévenaz