By D. Allan Bromley (auth.)
In this remarkable journey d'horizon, D. Allan Bromley makes use of the celebration of the centenary of the yankee actual Society to mirror upon the expansion of physics over the last a hundred years, its fragmentation into quite a few subdisciplines, the influence physics has had upon sleek know-how, and the re-emergence of the basic solidarity of the self-discipline in recent times. thousands of old illustrations accompany the textual content. Bromley conveys a lot of the buzz and beauty that examine in physics generated within the twentieth century and asks what new issues are in shop within the subsequent century. He covers such themes as relativity and quantum mechanics, the long island undertaking, superconductivity, transistors and the revolution led to through solid-state electronics, protein folding, the makes use of of nuclear and atomic physics in biology and medication, plate tectonics, the growth of the universe and the large Bang, and gravitational radiation. Bromley, the Sterling Professor of the Sciences and Dean of Yale collage, served as Assistant to the President for technological know-how and expertise coverage 1989-1993 and used to be president of the yank actual Society in 1997. one of many World's major nuclear scientists, he was once founder and director of Yale's nuclear constitution laboratory and has obtained a variety of medals and awards, together with the nationwide Medal of Science.
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Extra resources for A Century of Physics
The ENIAC was designed by J. Prosper Eckert and John Mauchly. They used 18,000 vacuum tubes at a cost of $400,000; it is widely considered to be the progenitor of modern computers. The Newsweek editors superposed the figure on the right with her laptop to emphasize the enormous contrast in size and power that has taken place since 1946 in the world of computers. 5 million active transistor elements with their associated resistors and capacitors compared in size to an American nickel. FIGURE 54 NUMBER OF ACTIVE TRANSISTOR ELEMENTS PER CHIP 10'· ~--+--+-- 10' c..
The Manhattan Project, like the Apollo project, were fundamentally engineering activities, but physicists played a major role in both (particularly the Manhattan Project). Figure 28 shows Lawrence, Fermi, and Rabi discussing the Manhattan Project during its early days at Los Alamos, and Figure 29 shows Niels Bohr-or "Mr. Baker," as he was called in Los Alamos-with the Los Alamos Director, J. Robert Oppenheimer. This figure illustrates the close cooperation that existed between the remaining free scientific community in Europe and the Americans, but it also gives some indication of the heavy responsibilities that rested on Oppenheimer's shoulders (compare this photograph with Figure 12, showing Oppenheimer in happier days).
It is constructed by drawing an equilateral triangle with sides of unit length. On the middle of each side of the triangle a new triangle one third the size is added and this process continues. The length of the boundary of the Koch curve 3+4/3+4/3+4/3+ ... infinity, but at the same time the area bounded by this infinite perimeter is less than that of the circle that circumbscribes the original triangle. The availability of modern computers has made possible major extension of these concepts; an example is shown in Figure 49b.
A Century of Physics by D. Allan Bromley (auth.)